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The Power Plate is a resistance machine providing an outcome similar to, and even more beneficial than, working out with free weights or weight-bearing equipment. Power Plate training requires only 1/3 the amount of time required for conventional training. The Power Plate is able to achieve these results through supercompensation of the muscular system.
 
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History

The Power Plate was invented by Guus van der Meer, a member of the Olympic coaching team in the Netherlands and noted innovator in the field of exercise and athletic training. Seeking ways to improve conditioning and performance of elite athletes, van der Meer uncovered research on whole body vibration exercises that had been performed by scientists in Russia and Eastern Europe. Intrigued, he investigated whole body vibratory-training equipment and evaluated it's suitability for athletes under his supervision. Dissatisfied with the quality of available vibration training devices, van der Meer assembled a team of designers, engineers and manufacturers to develop a superior machine. Finding that only precisely calibrated frequencies and amplitudes could unleash the potential of their unit, and engage the body correctly, they created Advanced Vibration Technology©, which is a form of scientifically calibrated Whole Body Vibration. These calibrations consist of a series of scientifically measured frequency levels that produce quantitative results. Although originally developed to train elite athletes, it was soon discovered that Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology, and Advanced Body Vibration&© as it is also known, has nearly unlimited benefits for physical therapy, longevity and anti-aging, sports rehabilitation, beauty and wellness, alternative medicine, fighting osteoporosis and far more. Power Plate is consistently proving through on-going scientific research that it is a remarkable machine with limitless applications. Studies are done year-round on the Power Plate, as new benefits and key applications are validated all the time. The Power Plate was introduced in the Netherlands in 1999 and today is licensed for distribution in over twenty-four countries including Italy, Spain, France, The U.K., Japan, China, Korea, Canada and the United States. It is widely used by professional sports teams, training centers, rehab/medical facilities, health clubs and private homes.

How & why it works

The Power Plate produces a vibration through which energy is transferred from the platform to the body. By standing on the Power Plate you will notice how your body automatically adjusts to the vibrations. This mechanical stimulus produces a stretch reflex which, depending on the selected frequency, results in muscles vigorously contracting 30 to 50 times per second. Exercise causes the body to tire; rest allows the body to recover. By repeating this process, the body adjusts to the level of effort, resulting in an increase in physical performance. This phenomenon, called super-compensation, similarly occurs when training on the Power Plate. However, compared with traditional training methods, greater results are achieved and hormonal production is increased in much less time. Each set is performed no longer than 30, 45, or 60 seconds in length, and training sessions on the Power Plate need to be performed no more than 3 to 4 times per week with each session lasting about 10 minutes of actual time on the Power Plate. Advanced Vibration Technology increases the production of regenerative and repair hormones, improves blood circulation, strengthens bone tissue, improves lymph drainage and increases basal metabolic rate. All this results in more strength, more speed, more stamina, rapid recovery of muscles and tissue, increased flexibility, mobility and coordination, improved collagen production, and fat reduction. The Power Plate offers a wide range of possibilities for use in the areas of Sports, Health, Fitness, Medical & Rehabilitation.

Health & Fitness

The Power Plate is a resistance machine providing an outcome similar to, and even more beneficial than, working out with free weights or weight-bearing equipment. Power Plate training requires only 1/3 the amount of time required for conventional training. The Power Plate is able to achieve these results through supercompensation of the muscular system. When operating at 35-hertz / high amplitude, the users muscles are contracting and releasing 35 times per second, while sustaining the resistance equal to over 3.9 times the users body weight. The Power Plate employs a 32" x 35" body positioning plate, which houses a driving mechanism that evenly distributes vibrations throughout the body. This accelerates and magnifies a reflexive involuntary contraction. Traditional resistance training methods provide resistance on a single linear axis whereas the Power Plate's resistance effects occur on multiple axes stimulating the entire body of fibers within a given muscle group. This means people are able to achieve a better physical well being, improve their athletic capabilities and rehabilitate injuries quicker, regardless of medical, neurological or physical condition. Vibration training on the Power Plate is used to substantially improve muscle strength and performance, flexibility and range of motion, enhance critical blood flow throughout the body, expedite the recovery and regeneration of damaged tissue and ultimately, enhance the general wellness and quality of life for individuals. Power plate unique and unparalleled system of training allows anyone to develop their body according to their desired level of fitness. From professional Athletes looking for the extra edge, to senior citizens seeking a better quality of life, the Power Plate is a revolutionary machine designed for anyone to use, regardless of physical or Neurological condition.

Benefits

The benefits of the Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology© are considerable, as evidenced by its acceptance by major medical, rehabilitation and therapeutic centers across the country. It can enhance an individual's general well being and quality of life regardless of age, medical, neurological or physical condition. Vibration training on the Power Plate is used to substantially:

• Improve muscle strength and performance
• Increase flexibility and range of motion
• Enhance critical blood flow throughout the body (oxygenation and lymph drainage)
• Increase secretion of hormones that are important in regeneration and repair
   processes,such as HGH (Human Growth Hormone), IGF-1, and testosterone.
• Increase bone density
• Increase of the happiness hormone serotonin and neurotrophine, a substance that
   supports our thinking process.
• Decrease cortisol levels
• Rehabilitate injuries and ailments
• Enhance explosive strength
• Enhance conventional training results
• Speed training recovery
• Accelerate weight loss
• Reduce lower back pain
• Enhance pain reduction
• Improve collagen production
• Reduce appearance of cellulite
• Eliminate the effects of stress

The Power Plate with its revolutionary Advanced Vibration Technology© offers a solution that will not only improve the quality of life day-to-day, but ultimately add precious years as well.

The effects of the Power Plate

Saving time
Due to the effectiveness of the training and the fact that many muscle groups are activated at the same time, 10 minutes on the Power Plate will have the same results as 60 minutes of conventional strenuous exercise.

Increase in muscle strength
During Power Plate training, practically 100 % of all muscle fibres in all of the muscle groups involved are activated. Both strength and stamina clearly increase.

Increased metabolism
Training on the Power Plate will enhance metabolism, intensify fat burning and improve the basic metabolism, reducing the subcutaneous layers of fat. Special massage exercises will also target specific problem areas.

Burning excess fat
Obesity and weight loss are directly influenced through Power Plate and vibration training. Vibration develops leaner muscle tissue as it increases the metabolic rate resulting in a higher caloric burn. In combination with lymphatic drainage and increased blood circulation; both out comes of vibration; fat reduction is considerable and effective.

Cellulite
The positive effect of Advanced Vibration Technology on lymph drainage and blood circulation, strengthening collagen and in the release of such substances as HGH, has helped in the fight against cellulite. There is also considerably more fat reduction in people who train for 10 minutes three times a week on the Power Plate than in those who do aerobic activity for one hour three times a week. Massage exercises on the Power Plate loosen up coagulated tissues consequences and adhesions, break down fat cells and improve mobilityof tissue layers. As cellulite is broken down and the connective tissue is reinforced, the skin will improve in-depth. Even the facial muscles are trained and collagen fibres are stored.

Improving flexibility
Intense circulation, warming of the muscles and tendon reflexes will enhance flexibility of the body as well as loosening any tension, coagulation and adhesions of body tissues.

Activating circulation
During Power Plate training the muscles pump blood into even the smallest blood vessels, up to 50 times per second. This ensures that all cells are provided with fuel very rapidly. As a result, the body will also carry off any waste products much faster, leading to improved regeneration.

Improved coordination
Since all receptors in the body are stimulated simultaneously, both the inter- and intra-muscular coordination will improve. Reactions and sense of balance are trained as well, causing an immediate improvement.

Improved fitness
As the muscle tissue gets stronger, more will be required of all of the supply systems in the body, including the heart. This will lead to improved efficiency of all of these systems.

Anti-age Longevity
The Power Plate is a quintessential tool in anti-aging and for living a longer healthier life. Vibration training on the Power Plate creates an intense vigorous workout affecting virtually every muscle in the body without using overload, and dramatically reducing strain on joints, ligaments and tendons. The brain reacts to the intensity of the workout by producing enormous blood flow and oxygenation throughout the entire body while also causing a dramatic spike in Human Growth Hormone (HGH), key to the repair and regeneration of tissues. At the same time there is a rise in testosterone, a significant elevation of neurotransmitters and endorphins (providing the so called runner's "high") helping to suppress pain and elevate the users mood. In Power Plate's short duration training (an average of 10 minutes a day, three times a week) you will also instantly increase flexibility and range of motion as well as improve the production of collagen all within the first ninety seconds of use. Overall, the Power Plate contributes to a more youthful feeling due to an increase in oxygenation, increased secretion of serotonin (the happiness hormone), mental stimulation and improved basic brain functions (such as better concentration). Almost immediately you will notice positive influences to your overall strength and well-being. By decreasing cortisol levels the Power Plate helps eliminate the effects of stress making the Power Plate a great tool for relaxation.

Medical Rehabilitation

The Power Plate has already made a substantial impact in the world of sports medicine and strength and conditioning and is gaining attention among mainstream health and fitness professionals and alternative health centers across the country. However, Power Plate is not merely a training method for elite athletes, but also for individuals young and old, regardless of their physical and neurological condition, who want to live longer healthier lives. The medical benefits of the Power Plate are considerable, as evidenced by its acceptance from major medical, rehabilitation and therapeutic centers across the country. The biomechanical aspects of vibration therapy are widely used in the medical field for the prevention and treatment of different types of illnesses and injuries. The Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology allows people with debilitating conditions such as osteoporosis, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease, and stroke victims to yield the benefit of exercise while working within their personal limitations. Scientific research on the effects of Power Plate's Whole Body Vibration is continually being conducted all over the world. An increasing number of these studies and their results are being published in leading medical research journals.

Emphysema:
It is almost impossible to do any kind of exercise requiring energy if a patient is suffering from emphysema. The Power Plate can be very helpful in this case because the muscles are strengthened without severe exertion (by performing the exercises in a static manner) during the first few training sessions. Practically all the advantages of a regular workout can be achieved on the Power Plate, and it can help patients get back into shape and able to do cardio-fitness training such as walking or running, which is very difficult otherwise

MS / ALS :
Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are often unable to train normally because the body (i.e. the brain) is no longer capable of controlling the muscles properly. However, muscles are activated in an entirely different way while training on the Power Plate because it causes a stretch reflex without conscious effort. These reflexes are possible because the actual disease affects the nervous system rather than the muscle tissue. Training on the Power Plate will not cure individuals with these conditions, but will allow them to activate the muscles, thus greatly enhancing ones quality of life. Practical experience has shown that these patients get stronger and less dependent on others, and experience less pain. They tend to feel better and have more energy to cope with their everyday activities.

Osteoporosis:
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress unnoticed until a bone fractures or breaks. It can almost be considered an epidemic; millions of Americans are at risk. Scientific research has proven that bone density increases significantly under the influence of vibration training on the Power Plate.

Rheumatism:
Vibration training on the Power Plate can lead to a reduction in pain for those who suffer from arthritis and rheumatism. The Power Plate is proven to help increase blood circulation and dramatically improve flexibility and range of motion. Vibration training on the Power Plate is a non-strenuous, low impact method of exercise that requires less time and achieves greater results than conventional training. The Power Plate is the perfect tool for someone with physical limitations.

Lower Back pain:
Weakened lower back muscles are often the cause of back pain. These muscles can be reinforced by an appropriate training schedule on the Power Plate. It is possible to strengthen the back muscles without severe mechanical pressure or rotation under strain. If a patient has an acute hernia of the back, he or she should NOT train on the Power Plate, however, to avoid repeat injury it is extremely useful.

Pelvic instability:
This is usually caused by certain secondary symptoms such as the softening of the connective tissue during pregnancy. By training on the Power Plate, the hormonal balance will be regained quickly, causing the connective tissue to recover their original strength and rigidity. The fact that training on the Power Plate is done in a closed chain position and does not put any additional strain on the locomotive system and joints means that it is an excellent way to strengthen this particular part of the body, and to counteract the instability.

Whiplash:
Whiplash is defined as a hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind in an automobile accident, causing a dislocation of the cervical vertebrae. This (temporary) displacement can cause many problems.

Senior Citizens:
After age 40, adults lose a quarter to a third of a pound of muscle a year and gain that much body fat. For many seniors, weight training, aerobics, running and other high impact training methods simply aren't an option. Vibration training on the Power Plate is a low impact, non-strenuous and non-invasive workout. Power Plate is a simple solution to preventing age-related muscle loss. Not only does it improve muscle strength, but also increases flexibility and range of motion, enhances critical blood flow throughout the body, expedites the recovery and regeneration of damaged tissue and ultimately, enhances the general wellness and quality of life for individuals.

Osteoporosis:
Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress unnoticed until a bone fractures or breaks. It can almost be considered an epidemic; millions of Americans are at risk. Scientific research has proven that bone density increases significantly under the influence of vibration training on the Power Plate.

Sports Performance

Both top athletes and everyday sports enthusiasts are always looking for better ways to train their body and get the competitive edge. Power Plate provides that edge and more. That's why Power Plate has quickly been sweeping through the professional spots industry, utilized by teams across the nation. Advanced Vibration Technology© is scientifically calibrated to dramatically enhance sports training as both a supplemental and an alternative form of training. Within seconds, range of motion, and stability are instantly increased, perfect for warming up before training, as well as right before going out to play. As it stimulates fast twitch muscle fibers, there is a dramatic increase to explosive strength, motor learning, muscular endurance, and overall agility. These are some of the nearly limitless benefits of Power Plate and Advanced Body Vibration©. With Power Plate, you're not just getting a new strength and conditioning tool, but a method of preventing and rehabilitating injuries. Several professional teams have found Power Plate not only to be an integral training tool, but indispensable for rehabilitation. "We've had some knee injuries and quad contusions as well, and it really helped us out there a lot." Says Anaheim Mighty Ducks trainer Chris Phillips in an interview with Hockey Business News (June, 2003). Power Plate was also touted as a "Space Age Machine" and "One of the most popular stops at Raiders Camp" in The Sporting News article about the rehabilitation of Trace Armstrong's torn Achilles tendon (August 2002).

Professional Athletes:
Power Plate's original intention was to provide a better system of training for professional athletes. Because fast twitch muscle fibers are especially stimulated while on Power Plate, an athlete's speed and explosive strength will increase exponentially. The release of HGH (Human Growth Hormone) ensures a faster recovery of muscle tissues, while Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology delivers a noticeable increase in range of motion and overall flexibility.Power Plate will help provide athletes with that competitive edge.

Amateur Athletes:
Most amateur athletes do not have the resources that the professionals do, but still wish to achieve an advanced level of strength and conditioning. The Power Plate brings amateur athletes and fitness enthusiasts a revolutionary way to shorten training sessions, increase flexibility, explosive strength and muscular endurance while reducing the potential of injury.

Endurance Sports:
Training on a Power Plate has many advantages for anyone involved in endurance sports. Vibration training activates the fast twitch muscle fibers (the muscle fibers engaged in quick, sudden action such as breakaways in cycling or a sprint to the finish line). Also, the higher release of hormones involved in recovery will ensure a faster and more complete recuperation, especially of the red muscles fibers (as a result of the increased amounts of HGH and IGF-1). Many athletes in endurance sports also face injuries due to over use and training overload. These problems can be treated quickly and efficiently using the Power Plate.

Explosive Sports:
The Power Plate is suitable as a replacement to weight training when it is necessary to keep athletes in top condition and injury free throughout the season. Because the Power Plate takes much less time and does not overtax the muscles it is a very popular alternative. The increase in testosterone levels will allow the explosive (white) muscle fibers to recover much faster and more completely. In addition, training on the Power Plate significantly increases flexibility without loss of explosive power.

Spa/ Relaxation

More than just an exercise and rehab machine, the Power Plate offers the capability of whole body relaxation. Not only can it massage all the muscle groups in the body, but also it can reduce nearly all the effects of stress. The Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology reduces the cortisol levels in the body while raising key hormones such as serotonin. Additionally, it increases and oxygenates blood flow, and improves flexibility and range of motion.

Active Individuals

The Power Plate is an exceptional alternative for those individuals who enjoy an active lifestyle, but who do not have the time or the motivation for a full work out three or more times a week. Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology provides a host of benefits that will allow basic fitness goals to easily be achieved or exceeded. Additionally, individuals will find it reduces stress (drop in cortisol), raises hormones such as HGH and serotonin, improves circulation and there is less impact on joints and ligaments. For these reasons, as well as many others, Power Plate is for those on the go.

Sedentary Individuals

Inactivity leads to muscle deterioration; muscle weakness and poor circulation which makes it increasingly difficult to take up any activity that may improve this condition. Power Plate can help you rebuild healthy and strong muscle tissue without the need for a strenuous or uncomfortable work out. Additionally, endorphins are released into the blood stream promoting a sense of well being, enhancing the perceived quality of life. Power Plate is the perfect tool for those individuals looking to start a new fitness regime but have not worked out in a long period of time.

Corporate

With millions of Americans facing chronic conditions such as arthritis, hypertension, chronic low back pain and other ailments on the rise, companies are realizing the benefits of offering corporate fitness centers. Striving to make physical fitness part of their employees' lives to help improve overall health and wellness, companies are looking for quick and simple fitness programs like Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology. By merely standing on the Power Plate one can yield its host of benefits: enhanced muscle strength, improved balance and flexibility, pain reduction and increase blood circulation. Since the Power Plate does not require rigorous physical activity and only takes about 10 minutes per session, employees can train on the Power Plate during their lunch break or any time during the day when feeling sluggish and just needing to be invigorated. Not only does vibration training on the Power Plate improve efficiency of the brain's ability to effectively trigger and improve physical response and performance, but it yields increases in key hormones like serotonin that counter mental lethargy and illicit true enhancement in overall mood as well as sharpening an individual's ability to focus and concentrate. With its small footprint and limitless applications, the Power Plate is the perfect equipment for any corporate fitness center environment.

Active Individuals:
The Power Plate is an exceptional alternative for those individuals who enjoy an active lifestyle, but who do not have the time or the motivation for a full work out three or more times a week. Power Plate's Advanced Vibration Technology provides a host of benefits that will allow basic fitness goals to easily be achieved or exceeded. Additionally, individuals will find it reduces stress (drop in cortisol), raises hormones such as HGH and serotonin, improves circulation and there is less impact on joints and ligaments. For these reasons, as well as many others, Power Plate is for those on the go.
Sedentary Individuals:
Inactivity leads to muscle deterioration; muscle weakness and poor circulation which makes it increasingly difficult to take up any activity that may improve this condition. Power Plate can help you rebuild healthy and strong muscle tissue without the need for a strenuous or uncomfortable work out. Additionally, endorphins are released into the blood stream promoting a sense of well being, enhancing the perceived quality of life. Power Plate is the perfect tool for those individuals looking to start a new fitness regime but have not worked out in a long period of time.

Functional Fitness:
The Power Plate is all about functional fitness, with an emphasis on enhancing the efficiency of the body to meet the day-to-day demands of work and life. Whether it be through increasing muscle strength, balance, flexibility and range of motion, reducing chronic pain, enhancing the mind-body connection or strengthening bones, the Power Plate provides the ultimate fitness and wellness tool for a society more and more focused on living longer and living better.

Training:
Training on the Power Plate is similar to any other form of training. You start with easy, short training sessions, and gradually progress to a more intense program. By increasing the impact of the training, you will result in a stronger body. The training schedules provided will work well for most people but not everyone. Please keep in mind there are always individual differences: what applies to one person may not apply to someone else. The most important principle is to listen to your body. As with conventional exercise, it is very important to allow enough rest between training sessions. The usual recovery period after training is about two days. With the Power Plate, recovery time is reduced - one day is usually sufficient. If these guidelines provided are too easy or too difficult after the initial adaptation period, then adjust the intensity to meet your comfort level.

Building up Intensity

These are suggested steps of progression to effectively and safely build intensity in your exercise program. Power Plate training generally follows the recommended exercise progression concept used by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) for conventional resistance training.

1. Extend the time of each exercise (from 30s to 45s, from 45s to 60s)
2. Reduce the rest period between exercises (from 60s to 45s to 30s to no rest)
3. Increase number of sets per exercise
4. Perform exercise dynamically
5. Add additional exercises
6. Add variations / combinations in dynamic, static and explosive movements
7. Increase frequency: 30Hz, 35Hz, 40Hz
8. Incorporate unilateral movement (i.e., perform exercise on one leg, etc.)
9. Increase Amplitude - Low to High
10. Add additional weights

We advise that you wear shoes with rubber soles when standing directly on the Power Plate. Always be sure to perform exercises in the proper position. Use the black rubber pad provided for the exercises, stretches and massages where other parts of the body come in contact with the platform.

Contraindications

This list of contraindications is not absolute. If one of the conditions listed below applies to you we implicitly advise that you consult with your physician before using the Power Plate.

• Pregnancy
• Acute thrombosis
• Serious cardiovascular disease
• Pacemaker
• Recent wounds from an operation or surgery
• Hip and knee implants
• Acute hernia, discopathy, spondylolysis
• Severe diabetes
• Epilepsy
• Recent infections
• Severe migraine
• Tumors
• Recently placed IUD's, metal pins, or plates

Research is still being conducted on the effects of vibration on certain medical conditions. This list may soon be reduced. Practical experience indicates that there are a number of cases where it is beneficial to integrate Power Plate training into ones treatment. This should always be done under the supervision of a doctor, physician or trained professional.

Research

As with any emerging training or therapeutic modality or method in the health, medical and fitness realms, unbiased scientific support is critical to both validating and reinforcing claims, and to providing necessary credibility, recognition and ultimately, acceptance within the professional community and general public. While the use of vibration is a still relatively new concept to most health and fitness and medical professionals, it certainly does not suffer from lack of supportive research, and while there is obviously much research yet to be done in the area, the overwhelming consistency of findings from scientific research that currently exists on the subject is a compelling precursor to the potential applications and impact of this revolutionary method of training and treatment. Here are examples of published science, supporting some of Advanced Vibration Technology and the Power Plate's most important claims, including enhanced muscle strength, bone density, hormonal release/circulation and pain reduction.

Scientific Support

Hormonal Response
 Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men

 The effects of vibration on human performance and hormonal profile M.Cardinale-
    2002

Human Performance
 The Benefits of WBV on jumping performance - C. Bosco - 1998

 Controlled WBV inprove health related quality of life in elderly patients = O. Bruyere -
    2003

 Electromyography activity of Vastus Lateralis muscle during WBV of different
     frequencies - M. Cardinale -
     2003

 Short-term effects of WBV on maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force and
    rate of force rise- C.J. de Ruiter- 2002

 Human postural response to different frequency vibrations of lower leg muscles -
    A.Polonyova-2001

 Suppressive mechanism of gastric motility by WBV-T.Ishitake-1999

 Human responses to vibration therapy-M.Tylee-1996

 New trends in training science: The use of vibrations for enhancing performance

 Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in men

 Preliminary report by the Sport Science Institute at the university of Bayreuth,
     Germany

 Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure

 Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human
    arm flexor muscles

 Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and
     amateur athletes

 Effect of four-month vertical whole-body vibration on performance and balance

 The influence of Whole Body Vibration on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal
     Muscle

 STRENGTH GAIN FOLLOWING 12 WEEKS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING

 Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration
    exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise

 Influence of brief daily tendon vibration on rat soleus muscle in non-weight-bearing
    situation

 Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training

 Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Muscular Performance, Balance, and Bone


Circulation & Pain Reduction
 Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume

 Treatment of Chronic Lower Back Pain with Lumbar Extension and Whole-Body
    Vibration Exercise

 Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a
    slow voluntary movement

 The effects of WBV (Whole Body Vibration) on reflex-induced standing in persons
    with chronic and acute spinal cord injury- JG Gianutus-2000


Advanced Vibration Technology
 The PowerPlate: A new application in physical therapy?

 Vibration Training - Mechanisms and possible mechanisms relating to structural
    adaptations and acute effects - Adrie van Diemen - 2002

 Physical backgrounds WBV - Iniversity Lauven - 2003

 The benefits of vibration training - 2003

 Shake, Rattle and Grow - Jim Stoppani - 2003

 Whole Body Vibration Exercise Leads to Alteration in Muscle Blood Volume


Bone Density Stimulation
 Mechanical Stimulation in the Form of Vibration Prevents Postmenopausal Bone Loss
    in Ovariectomized Rats

 The anabolic activity of bone tissue, suppressed by disuse, is normalized by brief
    exposure to extremely low-magnitude mechanical stimuli

 Bone and Space flight- J.W.A.van Loon- 1996

 Effect of 6-month WBV on hip density, muscle strength and postural control -
    M.P.Verschueren-2004

 New insight about the relationship between Bone strength and muscle strength-
    H.Sliessl-2000

 Transmissibility vibration to the human hip and lumbar spine- C.Rubin-2003

Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men
C. Bosco, M. Iacovelli, O. Tsarpela, M. Cardinale, M. Bonifazi, J. Tihanyi, M. Viru, A. De Lorenzo, A. Viru "We have shown that acute exposure to whole-body vibration causes increased plasma concentration of testosterone and growth hormone, and a decreased plasma concentration of cortisol. The increases in neuromuscular effectiveness and testosterone concentration were simultaneous but independent responses, however the two phenomena may have a common mechanism."

New trends in training science: The use of vibrations for enhancing performance
C. Bosco, M. Cardinale, O. Tsarpele, E. Locatelli "The use of vibrations in an athletic setting offers new possibilities to coaching science. Resistance training effectiveness has been demonstrated due to the possibility of enhancing neuromuscular performance, power output, strength and hormonal profile. However, the time needed for these adaptations to occur is relatively long as compared to the possibilities offered by vibration treatments. It should be recognized however, that vibrations need to be viewed not as a substitute tool of resistance exercise, but as a valid additional means to be implemented in a training routine in association with all the other traditional methodologies nowadays utilized. New studies need to be conducted to analyze chronic responses, different treatment protocols and the effects of the association of vibrations with conventional training means for improving the knowledge in the interesting and exciting tool of sports science."

Whole-body vibration exercise leads to alterations in muscle blood volume
K. Kerschan-Schindl, S. Grampp, C. Henk, H. Resch, E. Preisinger, V. Fialka-Moser, M Imhof "The crucial points concerning a positive or negative outcome in vibration studies on peripheral circulation and muscle strength seem to be the frequency and amplitude of vibration as well as the duration of exposure. The results of the study indicate that a short-term exposure to whole-body vibrations of 26 Hz does not have the negative effects known from long-term exposure to high frequency."

Acute physiological effects of exhaustive whole-body vibration exercise in men
J. Rittweger, G. Beller, D. Felsenberg "In brief, vibration exercise is a new strategy in eliciting muscular contraction by reflexes. It therefore may allow the combination of voluntary and involuntary muscle work. The present investigation has shown that, even if performed to exhaustion, cardiovascular effects of vibration exercise are mild. In young, healthy subjects, heart rate rises from 130 min-1, which corresponds to 50% of maximal oxygen uptake. Blood lactate rose to about 3.5mm. Systolic blood pressure increased moderately up to 130mmHg, but the diastolic pressure dropped to almost 50 mmHg. All parameters returned to normal values within 15 min of recovery. In consequence, the risk expected when vibration exercise is applied in the elderly is negligible. Surprising findings of this study were the itching erythema and oedema of the skin over the activated muscles, which have to be investigated by further studies, as well as the mechanisms of fatigue, which seem to bear neuronal and muscular components."

Preliminary report by the Sport Science Institute at the university of Bayreuth, Germany
"1. The Power Plate's vibrational therapy provides a complete core workout whilst training specific muscle groups, has a distinctive toning effect and speeds up the metabolism. 2. Power Plate training places considerably less strain on the body that unsupervised free weight and machine training, thus reducing the risk of orthopedic injury. This is of particular relevance to the field of physiotherapy, where Power Plate can be used on patients with osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or with common rehabilitation needs. 3. Power Plate is perceived as a more user-friendly training action by users, reducing motivational barriers to entry and dropout rates. 4. Power Plate provides a time-efficient and effective whole-body workout in 30-40 minutes. This is an advantage for both the user and the health professional. 5. Finally, although Power Plate weighs a respectable 90 kilos, it takes up no more than a square meter, an economic use of space in both private and public training areas."

Adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to vibration exposure
C. Bosco, R. Colli, E. Introini, M. Cardinale, O. Tsarpela, A. Madella, J. Tihanyi, A. Viru "In the present study, no neurogenic potentiation has been demonstrated, as no EMG recordings were performed. Nevertheless, enhancement of the mechanical behavior strongly suggests that a neurogenic adaptation may have occurred in response to the vibration treatments. Therefore, even if the intrinsic mechanism contributed, the adaptive response of neuromuscular functions of VT could not be explained by it. The duration of the stimulus seems to be important. The adaptive response of human skeletal muscle to simulated hypergravity conditions (1.1 g), applied for 3 weeks, caused a drastic enhancement of the neuromuscular functions of the leg extensor muscles, shifting the F-V relationship to the right (Bosco, 1985). In the present experiment, even if the total length of the VT application period was only 10 min, the perturbation of the gravitational field was consistent (5.4 g). An equivalent length and intensity of training stimulus can be reached only by performing 150 leg press or half-squat exercises with extra loads of three times the body mass twice a week for 5 weeks (Bosco, 1992)."

Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles
C. Bosco, M. Cardinale, O. Tsarpela "The improvement in muscle performance after VT has been quoted (Bosco et al. 1998) to be similar to that occurring after several weeks of heavy resistance training (e.g. Ikai and Fukunnaa 1970; Coyle et al. 1981; Hakkinen and Komi 1985). In fact, the improvement in muscle function after resistance training has been attributed to enhancement of neuromuscular behaviour caused by an increasing activity of higher motor centers (Milner-Brown et al. 1975) The improvement of muscle performance induced by VT would suggest that a neural adaptation had occurred in response to VT. In this connection, the duration of the stimulus would seem to be important."

Treatment of Chronic Lower Back Pain with Lumbar Extension and Whole-Body Vibration Exercise
J. Ritweger, K. Just, K. Kautzsch, P. Reeg, D. Felsenberg "whole-body vibration exercise seems to be helpful rather than harmful in nonspecific chronic lower back pain. As to the practical aspects, and given that it yields about the same results as lumbar extension exercise, the spatial requirements favor the former. The LEX machine that we used requires an area of 12m2, whereas the VbX device could be placed on 3m2 with ease."

Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes
V.B Issurin, G. Tenenbaum ".the superimposed vibratory stimulation allowed a significant facilitation of an explosive strength exertion. This approach may be useful in identifying the hidden reserves of an athlete and in augmenting an acute effect of power training."

Effect of four-month vertical whole-body vibration on performance and balance
S. Torvinen, P. Kannus, H. Sievanen, T.A.H. Jarvinen, M. Pasanen, S. Kontulainen, T. Jarvinen, M. Jarvinen, P. Oja, I. Vuori "This randomized controlled study showed that a 4-month whole body vibration loading was safe to use and induced a significant 8.5% mean increase in the jump height of young healthy adults. This improvement was already seen after 2 months of the vibration. Lower limb extension strength was also enhanced by the 2-month vibration period. This increase however slowed down by the end of the intervention, and at 4 months the difference between the groups was no more statistically significant, mostly due to increased extension strength in the control group (learning effect). Concerning the dynamic and static body balance, the 4-month whole body vibration intervention showed no effect."

Mechanical Stimulation in the Form of Vibration Prevents Postmenopausal Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats
J. Flieger, Th. Karachalios, L. Khaldi, P Raptou, G. Lyritis "The rate of remodeling activity is very low in rats, but is activated after ovariectomy, resulting in negative bone balance. Moreover, ovariectomy increases both the length of the long bones by stimulation of longitudinal growth and the inner cross section area (cortex) by stimulation of endosteal bone resorption. These findings were confirmed by our study. The efficacy of agents and exercise regimens in the immediate post-ovariectomy period can be evaluated in terms of their ability to prevent bone loss through inhibition of bone turnover. Thus, it seems that vibration exhibits a suppressant effect on increased bone turnover."

The influence of Whole Body Vibration on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal Muscle
C. Bosco, M. Cardinale, R. Colli, J. Tihanyi, S.P. von Duvillard, A. Viru ".enhanced mechanical behaviour during 5 s CJ, strongly suggests that a neurogenic adaptation have occurred in response to the vibration treatments. Even if the intrinsic mechanism of the adaptive response of neuromuscular functions to WBV could not be explained, the effectiveness of the stimulus seems to have relevant importance."

STRENGTH GAIN FOLLOWING 12 WEEKS OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING
M. Roelants, C. Delecluse, S. Verschueren "The sensory stimulation provoked by WBV, followed by an increased EMG-activity, has the potential to induce a significant strength gain in knee-extensors and this to the same extent as regular high resistance training. The strength gain following WBV-training in this study may not be considered as an acute effect as there was a 72 hour-delay between the post tests and the last training session. The changes in strength are clearly linked to the vibratory stimulus, as there is no effect in the placebo condition. Most likely the strength gain is mainly the result of specific neural adaptations resulting in a more efficient use of sensory information. Further investigations are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms of muscle activation and neuromuscular adaptations by means of WBV-training." The PowerPlate: A new application in physical therapy? Janneke Kelderman "According to the results of studies done about the influence of Whole Body Vibrations, can be concluded that the PowerPlate positively influences several physiological processes: Average and explosive strength both increase faster in PowerPlate training than in conventional training.

The PowerPlate training influences the neuromuscular system.
The blood circulation during training on the PowerPlate is much greater than in conventional Power Training. The training on the PowerPlate has a favorable effect on the density of bone and tendon tissue."

VIBRATION TRAINING
Vibration Training - Mechanisms and possible mechanisms relating to structural adaptations and acute effects Adrie van Diemen "Broadly speaking, vibration training has two effects: an acute effect and a structural effect. The structural effect is the most relevant. This structural effect can in turn be split up into two categories. The first is the more important for competitive athletes and has received the most attention from scientific researchers in recent years: the addition of vibration training to maximal weight training in order to produce a greater effect than maximal weight training alone. The second category is of more interest to the recreational athlete and patients in rehabilitation: vibration training carried out statically or with sub-maximal contractions like knee flexions. What makes this form so interesting is that the same effect can be achieved with a modest training effort as with a major effort like maximal weight training. In addition, it is not so very interesting whether this training effect is greater or smaller than what can be achieved with traditional weight training, because both forms are completely different where a number of characteristics are concerned. It is not the effect which is relevant, but whether the athlete is willing or able to carry out the training."

Acute changes in neuromuscular excitability after exhaustive whole body vibration exercise as compared to exhaustion by squatting exercise
Jo¨rn Rittweger, Marcus Mutschelknauss, and Dieter Felsenberg "The observed total exercise time, the changes in blood lactate and the RPE values suggest that a comparable degree of exhaustion and muscular fatigue was reached more rapidly with vibration than without. This becomes plausible when considering that whole-body vibration increases the oxygen consumption when applied in addition to the squatting exercise (Rittweger et al., 2001). A substantial correlation was observed between the individual exercise times with or without vibration, indicating a contribution of the individual resistance to fatigue for both types of exercise."

Influence of brief daily tendon vibration on rat soleus muscle in non-weight-bearing situation
M Falempin and Soumeya Fodili In-Albon "A very rapid atrophy has been described in humans in space. After a 5-day flight, mean FCSAs were, respectively, 11 and 24% smaller in type I and II fibers (13). According to Edgerton et al. (13), these morphological changes are qualitatively similar to those observed in animals after real or simulated spaceflight conditions for short periods. The validity of extrapolating from unweighted muscles to humans in spaceflight is likely to prove qualitatively correct. Muscular vibration has been used to 1) study the contribution of muscle spindles to kinesthetic sensitiveness (35); 2) study the perceptions of position and velocity of an isometric limb (37); and 3) investigate how the central nervous system uses the muscle spindle information to coordinate movements (10). No systematic study of the effects of tendon vibration on the mechanical properties of atrophied muscles has been reported in the literature. Our results provide evidence for a therapeutic effect of tendon vibration on unloaded muscles. The data are even more convincing when we consider that 1) tendon vibration was applied for only 192 s in every 24-h period during the unloading time and 2) it was a noninvasive method to prevent any change in the spinal proprioceptive regulation by the muscle spindle reflex during spaceflight. Consequently, this countermeasure could be applied in humans during a mission."

Strength Increase after Whole-Body Vibration Compared with Resistance Training
C. Delecluse, M. Roelants, and S. Verschueren "In conclusion, this is the first study that demonstrates that the stimulation of propriospinal pathways provoked by WBV and the resulting increase in muscle activity have the potential to induce strength gain in the knee extensors of previously untrained subjects to the same extent as resistance training at moderate intensity. The findings of this study clearly indicate that strength increases after 12 wk of WBV training are not attributable to a placebo effect. The CMJ height increased significantly in the WBV group only. The results of this study suggest that strength increases recorded in the WBV group are mainly resulting from neural adaptations and can be ascribed to a more efficient use of sensory information in the production of force. It is clear that more research on WBV is needed to clarify the mechanisms of muscle contractions and strength gain."

Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement
Jorn Rittweger, Hans Schiessl, Dieter Felsenberg "If assessed during steady-state conditions, VO2 permits an estimation of energy metabolism of the organism (Margaria 1968; McArdle et al. 1991; Stegemann 1991). If resting values are subtracted, exercise- related metabolic power can be estimated. Normalizing tot he body mass yields data that are comparable between individuals. Our data show that platform vibration with a frequency of 26 Hz increases VO2. This supoports strongly the view that vibration eleicits muscular activoty, and that we are therefore dealing with a type of exercise rather than with passive vibration."

Effect of Whole Body Vibration on Muscular Performance, Balance, and Bone
Saila Torvinen "In the study I and II, the short-term effects of a single, 4-min whoile body vibration bout on muscle performance and body balance of healthy young adults were evaluated. In the study I, tilting-type of vibration induced transient, moderate improvements in jump height, isometric extension strength of lower extremities, and body balance. EMG-recordings of muscle activity demonstrated initial muscle fatigue, especially in the calf area. In the study II, a vertically-vibrating vibration stimulus did not induce changes in the performance and blance tests, while EMG-measurements showed the vibration exposure activated the muscles particularly in the hip region."